MALARIA


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Organism that Causes the Disease-

There are five different organisms that can cause malaria, the most common of which is Plasmodium falciparum. The four others are Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, and lastly Plasmodium knowlesi. Plasmodium falciparum is the most common and the most deadly of the four species of malaria causing organisms.


Primary Host(s)-


The primary hosts of malaria are female mosquitoes. Though humans and other vertebrates can also be a host of the disease, they are considered secondary hosts. They can only spread it to mosquitoes that bite them not to other humans.


Vector -

female Anopheles mosquito

Mode(s) of Transmission-


Malaria is transmitted through the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. When the mosquito bites a human it not only takes blood but also leaves some behind. If the mosquito is infected with malaria so is the blood it leaves behind, and then the person that is bitten becomes infected also.

Transmission Animation
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Organ System(s) Affected-

The circulatory system if affected because the red blood cells become infected with the disease. The liver is also affected because that is where the disease lives until it spreads to the blood.


Major Symptoms-

The symptoms of malaria are
fever, shivering, arthalgia (joint pain), vomiting, anemia, hemoglobinuria, retinal damage, convulsions, and headache. In the most severe cases coma and death can occur.

Incubation Period-


The parasites live in the mosquito host for about a week before they are prepared to be passed on to a new host.
The malaria parasites live in the human liver for anywhere from two weeks to a few years before they spread and symptoms begin to be seen. -Ruptured red blood cell

Malaria life cycle

Mortality Rate-

Every year there are 300 to 500 million cases of malaria, and one to three million of those infected die.


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Treatment-


Malaria can be treated with
intravenous or intramuscular quinine, though it is found to not kill all species of the parasite. One of the most effective drugs is Malaron. It works very quickly, but it is very expensive. A few other drugs taken to cure malaria are Artemisinin, Doxycycline, and Mefloquine. One of the most commonly used drugs to prevent malaria is Chloroquine.



Demographic Most Likely to get Disease-


The Sub-Saharan Africa is most prone to contracting malaria. Ninety percent of malaria related deaths occur there.
Map

Transmission and Prevention



A few helpful tips to prevent the transmission of Malaria....

-Avoid the bite of mosquitoes.
-Eliminate breeding grounds, disposing of stagnant water -(water collected in containers, tires, buckets, etc.)
-Use protective barriers such as mosquito nets.
-Use repellants (bug spray)