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Monday, August 5

  1. page home edited ... the 16th-century compendium of materials and information on Aztec and Nahua history collected…
    ...
    the 16th-century compendium of materials and information on Aztec
    and Nahua history collected by Fray Bernardino de Sahagún
    testing okay {2.jpg}
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    12:39 pm
  2. page home edited The Colonial Spread of Disease in the Americas A Digital Textbook Project ... the 16th-centu…

    The Colonial Spread of Disease in the Americas
    A Digital Textbook Project
    ...
    the 16th-century compendium of materials and information on Aztec
    and Nahua history collected by Fray Bernardino de Sahagún
    testing okay {2.jpg}

    (view changes)
    12:38 pm

Monday, February 8

  1. page space.menu edited ... Introduction 1. Smallpox 1.1 Smallpox Overview 1.2 Smallpox in Hispaniola 1.3 Smallpox i…
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    Introduction
    1. Smallpox
    1.1 Smallpox Overview
    1.2 Smallpox in Hispaniola
    1.3 Smallpox in Mexico
    ...
    7.1 Overview of the Slave Trade
    7.2 The Slave Trade and Disease
    1.1 Smallpox Overview
    ColonialDiseaseInstructions
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    1:10 pm

Sunday, January 31

  1. page 1. Smallpox edited ... Crusts are pustules that turn into scabs. These scabs appear about two weeks after the rash ap…
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    Crusts are pustules that turn into scabs. These scabs appear about two weeks after the rash appears. The scabs usually fall off 3-4 weeks after the origin of the rash.
    The following video discusses the incubation period of smallpox the symptoms. It then goes on to explain how smallpox ends:
    Mortality raterate:
    In Colonial
    ...
    death rate ofwas 30-35% offor people infected with the Variola
    ...
    rate.
    Treatment... colonialColonial vs modern
    MODERN:
    Modern:
    MODERN:
    Smallpox was
    ...
    or believed that you hadto have it, it was recommended tothat one get the
    ...
    drug kills the virus that causes the disease.
    ...

    COLONIAL: During the time of the smallpox
    ...
    treatment was what was called variolation. The
    ...
    the cut. However, John Adams,
    ...
    in the variolation facility at
    ...
    Harbor, writes of his experience to Abigail
    ...
    days.
    {http://www.wtv-zone.com/Mary/GifsadJpgs/BLACKREG8.JPG} John
    John
    Adams was in a Variolation facility at
    ...
    William in Boston.Boston where he was innoculated against smallpox.
    Picture: http://www.wtv-zone.com/Mary/GifsadJpgs/BLACKREG8.JPG
    Read more at Suite101: Smallpox and Variolation in Colonial Boston: Epidemic in 1764 Brought John Adams to Boston for Inoculation http://colonial-america.suite101.com/article.cfm/smallpox_and_variolation_in_colonial_boston#ixzz0c1l4LiTO
    Possible CompliactionsComplicactions:
    Arthritis and Bone infections
    Brain Swelling
    ...
    Skin infections
    Death
    Demographic affected
    In
    affected:
    In
    the Colonial
    ...
    they had growndeveloped an immunity
    ...
    generations of resistance.exposure.
    {namericanimage.jpg}
    Native Americans were the main group affected.
    Picture:http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/images/namericanimage.jpg
    ReferencesReferences:
    Deming, Brian.
    ...
    Available at: http://colonial-america.suite101.com/article.cfm/smallpox_and_variolation_in_colonial_boston
    "Smallpox disease overview." Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
    [[http://colonial-america.suite101.com/article.cfm/smallpox_and_variolation_in_colonial_boston ]]
    Mayo Clinic Staff. "Complications." Mayo Clinic.
    Available at : http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/smallpox/overview/disease-facts.asp
    Mayo
    [[http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/smallpox/DS00424/DSECTION=complications ]]
    Mayo
    Clinic Staff.
    ...
    Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/smallpox/DS00424 [[http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/smallpox/DS00424 ]]
    Levy, Daniel. "Smallpox." Medline Plus. Available at: [[http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001356.htm ]]

    Robertson, R.G. Rotting Face: Smallpox and the American Indian . Caxton Press, Caldwell Idaho, 2001. Available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=-EoEm_OO8RgC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage&q=&f=false .
    Levy, Daniel. "Smallpox." Medline Plus. Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001356.htm
    Mayo Clinic Staff. "Complications." Mayo Clinic.
    "Smallpox disease overview." Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Available at : http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/smallpox/DS00424/DSECTION=complicationshttp://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/smallpox/overview/disease-facts.asp
    "Smallpox: Symptoms." WebMD. Available at: http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/smallpox-symptoms
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    7:44 pm
  2. page 1. Smallpox edited ... Primary Host: The only host for smallpox is the human. It is transmitted human to human. .…
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    Primary Host:
    The only host for smallpox is the human. It is transmitted human to human.
    ...
    of transmission:
    Smallpox

    Smallpox
    is easily
    ...
    person to person andperson. It can be
    ...
    alive in the rightfavorable conditions for
    ...
    survive for only up to 6 hours. Favorable conditions are without sunlight. It is an extremelya highly contagious disease but itthat is the
    ...
    off.
    Organ system(s) affectedsystem affected:
    The Integumentary Sysytem is the only system affected by smallpox.
    Major SymptomsSymptoms: {smalpox.jpg}
    Skin rash
    Backache
    ...
    Severe headache
    Vomiting
    ...
    smallpox is a rash
    covering the skin.
    Incubation period
    The
    period:
    The
    incubation period
    ...
    to appear. The rash usually appears 1-2 days after contact with the disease. However, over
    ...
    different stages.The different stages are:
    Mascules are tiny, flat red spots that usually first appear in the throat and mouth. They can easily go unnoticed until a rash on the skin appears. Rashes on the skin are most concentrated on the face, feet and hands.
    Papules are red spots that turn bumpy. They usually grow to about 0.1 in. in diameter.
    Vasicles are lesions that are filled with fluid. Usually, they are about 0.2 in. in diameter.
    ...
    pus-filled. They beganbegin to grow
    ...
    The rash goes throughenters this stage
    ...

    Crusts are crusted over pustules that
    ...

    The following is a video that discusses the incubation period and alsoof smallpox the symptoms.
    Mortality rate
    In Colonial times smallpox was a major illness where the death rate of 30-35% of the Variola major virus. The other form of smallpox which is much less deadly is the Variola minor virus which only has a 1% death rate.
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    7:08 pm
  3. page 1. Smallpox edited Smallpox Overview ... causes the disease disease: The organism ... the virus; variola …

    Smallpox Overview
    ...
    causes the diseasedisease:
    The organism
    ...
    the virus; variolaVariola major and variolaVariola minor. The variolaVariola major is
    ...
    deadly than the variolaVariola minor.
    {smallpox-virus-ns.jpg}
    This is a picture of theVariola virus that causes smallpox.
    Primary Host:
    The only host for smallpox is the human. It is transmitted human to human.
    Mode(s)Mode of transmissiontransmission:
    Smallpox is easily transmittable from person to person and can be spread through saliva droplets or through bed sheets and clothing, because the virus can survive in these environments for long periods of time. The smallpox virus can stay alive in the right conditions for up to 24 hours. However, in unfavorable conditions it can survive for up to 6 hours. It is an extremely contagious disease but it is the most contagious for the first week of symptoms, or until the scabs from the rash fall off.
    Organ system(s) affected
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    6:45 pm
  4. page 1.4 Smallpox in Peru edited ... Dunnel, Tony. “The History of Smallpox in Latin America.” Available at: http://latin-american-…
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    Dunnel, Tony. “The History of Smallpox in Latin America.” Available at: http://latin-american-colonization.suite101.com/article.cfm/the_history_of_smallpox_in_latin_america
    "European Voyages of Exploration: The Inca Empire." The European Voyages of Exploration. The University of Calgary. Web. 17 Jan. 2010. Available at: http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/inca.html
    Giblin, James Cross. When Plague Strikes: The Black Death, Smallpox, AIDS. null. Reprint. New York: HarperTrophy, 1997. Print.
    "Inca." Minnesota State University, Mankato. Web. 17 Jan. 2010. Availabe at: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/latinamerica/south/cultures/inca.html
    MacQuarrie, Kim. The Last Days of the Incas. Simon and Schuster Paperbacks, 2007
    Orlow, Elizabeth. “Silent Killers of the New World.” Millersville University http://www.millersville.edu/~columbus/papers/orlow-e.html
    Photograph. The Conquest of the Inca Empire. The Applied History Research Group, 1997. Web. 14 Jan. 2010. http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/inca.html.
    "The Inca (Overview)." World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 13 Jan. 2010. Available at: http://www.ancienthistory.abc-clio.com.
    “The Story of Smallpox and Other Deadly Eurasian Germs,” Guns, Germs, and Steel. Available at: http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/smallpox.html
    Crosby, Alfred W.. The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 30th Anniversary Edition. 30 Anv ed. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Paperback, 2003. Print.
    Giblin, James Cross. When Plague Strikes: The Black Death, Smallpox, AIDS. null. Reprint. New York: HarperTrophy, 1997. Print.
    Watts, Sheldon. Epidemics & History: Disease, Power and Imperialism. 1 ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997. Print.
    Photograph. The Conquest of the Inca Empire. The Applied History Research Group, 1997. Web. 14 Jan. 2010. http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/inca.html.
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  5. page 1.4 Smallpox in Peru edited ... One way that helped smallpox spread easily was the Inca Road System. The Inca Road System cons…
    ...
    One way that helped smallpox spread easily was the Inca Road System. The Inca Road System consisted of t {http://tierra.free-people.net/personajes/img/pers_atahualpa1.jpg} wo roads that branched off, stretching over the whole empire. Many people traveled on the Inca Road System and they brought their diseases with them everywhere they went, infecting more people. A huge loss to the Incas was their emperor, Huayna Capac, who had died of smallpox. Huayna was loved by his people very much and many people looked up to him. Other big losses to the Incas were military and political leaders. The massive amounts of deaths from smallpox would help Francisco Pizarro conquer the Incan Empire.
    War and Conquest
    ...
    His Sons
    After the unexpected death of Huayna Capac, which was due to smallpox, there was great confusion about who would become the next autocrat. Huayna Capac had chosen one of his sons to be the next successor, but also became ill with smallpox and soon died. This deadly disease had {http://atahualpa.net78.net/Imagenes/atahualpa.jpg} caused great confusion in this empire and eventually a civil war. Since there was noone else chosen to take the thrown, a war broke out between the emperors two sons who had survived: Atahualpa and Huascar. The war devastated the empire and this great {http://www.bookpalace.com/acatalog/DruryConq.jpg} struggle had split the empire into two factions. It was now easier for the Spanish to conquer the Incan Empire. In 1532, Atahualpa won the war with his brother and became the new emperor. His victory did not last very long though, as the Spanish, under the lead of Francisco Pizarro, soon invaded the empire. Disease and a civil war had opened way for this Spanish conquistador and his men.
    Francisco Pizarro and Spanish Conquest
    Francisco Pizarro arrived in 1532 with 67 horsemen and over 100 foot soldiers and invaded the Incan Empire. The Spanish had the advantage of guns, artillery, and horses, while the {http://www.pbp.sevier.org/Pizarro/Pizarro/images/img-francisco-pizarro.gif} Incas did not have much. Pizarro soon captured the empire’s recently appointed autocrat, Atahuualpa. The Incas paid a huge ransom in gold and silver to the Spaniards for the release of Atahualpa, but they killed him anyways. Pizarro and all the Spanish conquistadors then took control of the Incan Empire. Pizarro's capture of Atahualpa showed how much the loss of an emperor can affect and cause damage to society.
    The Incas were not able to put up a fight with the Spanish conquistadors because of what the smallpox epidemic had done. Smallpox caused the emperor Huayna Capac and his chosen heir to die, therefore resulting in a civil war between his two sons, Atahualpa and Huascar. This war caused the empire to divide, which made it much easier for Francisco Pizarro and the Spaniards to invade and conquer the area. The Spaniards would not have been able to “enter or win the lands” (Crosby 56) if the land had not been divided in the first place. They may have been able to drive out the Spanish invaders if they had not been hit by smallpox.
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    10:28 am
  6. page 1.4 Smallpox in Peru edited ... Arrival of Smallpox The Spanish first came to the New World in 1492 through the voyage of Chr…
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    Arrival of Smallpox
    The Spanish first came to the New World in 1492 through the voyage of Christopher Columbus. More and more voyages to the New World began and the Spanish were able to conquer many territories on their voyages. One thing that played a vital role in conquering different territories was diseases. The Spanish brought many diseases with them to the New World and immense amounts of people died from these diseases. One disease that found its way into the New World and the Incan Empire was smallpox. Smallpox would play a key role in the conquering of the Incan Empire. Smallpox was first seen in Mexico, where it spread from there down to Central America and finally to the Incan Empire.
    ...
    as “virgin soil”,soil” because none
    ...
    to the Incas, whichIncas was their
    War and Conquest
    AfterHuayna Capac and His Sons
    After
    the unexpected
    ...
    there was no onelsenoone else chosen to
    ...
    sons who hadsurvived:had survived: Atahualpa and
    ...
    this great s {http://www.bookpalace.com/acatalog/DruryConq.jpg} truggle {http://www.bookpalace.com/acatalog/DruryConq.jpg} struggle had split
    ...
    his men.
    Francisco Pizarro

    Francisco Pizarro arrived in 1532 with 67 horsemen and over 100 foot soldiers and invaded the Incan Empire. The Spanish had the advantage of guns, artillery, and horses, while the {http://www.pbp.sevier.org/Pizarro/Pizarro/images/img-francisco-pizarro.gif} Incas did not have much. Pizarro soon captured the empire’s recently appointed autocrat, Atahuualpa. The Incas paid a huge ransom in gold and silver to the Spaniards for the release of Atahualpa, but they killed him anyways. Pizarro and all the Spanish conquistadors then took control of the Incan Empire. Pizarro's capture of Atahualpa showed how much the loss of an emperor can affect and cause damage to society.
    The Incas were not able to put up a fight with the Spanish conquistadors because of what the smallpox epidemic had done. Smallpox caused the emperor Huayna Capac and his chosen heir to die, therefore resulting in a civil war between his two sons, Atahualpa and Huascar. This war caused the empire to divide, which made it much easier for Francisco Pizarro and the Spaniards to invade and conquer the area. The Spaniards would not have been able to “enter or win the lands” (Crosby 56) if the land had not been divided in the first place. They may have been able to drive out the Spanish invaders if they had not been hit by smallpox.
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    10:25 am
  7. page 1.4 Smallpox in Peru edited ... The Inca Empire The Incas were also very sophisticated at the time and their accomplishments …
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    The Inca Empire
    The Incas were also very sophisticated at the time and their accomplishments were impressive. By using irrigation throughout different territories, the Incas were able to build up many areas of farmland. Along with irrigation, the Incas created paved roads, rope bridges, and steps up mountains. They built magnificent temples through the use of their vast amounts of gold and silver. Although this ancient civilization seemed far ahead then many other civilizations, this great empire would fall to a disease known as smallpox.
    Smallpox
    Smallpox is a viral infection that enters in through someone’s nose or throat. Smallpox is contagious {http://science.nationalgeographic.com/staticfiles/NGS/Shared/StaticFiles/Science/Images/Content/smallpox-virus-73335735-ga.jpg} and once the infection gets into the body, the virus will move to the lungs. The virus will then multiply and affect the lymphatic system. Blisters will slowly appear over a period of three to five days, starting with the hands and face, and eventually spread to the rest of the body. These blisters are filled with smallpox DNA, and the DNA can get out and onto other surfaces if the blister breaks open. The incubation period is twelve days and if not monitored well, the disease can spread to many other people. For someone to get this disease though, they must be in very close human contact.
    {http://www.es.flinders.edu.au/%7Emattom/science+society/maps/incaroads.png}
    ...
    The Spanish first came to the New World in 1492 through the voyage of Christopher Columbus. More and more voyages to the New World began and the Spanish were able to conquer many territories on their voyages. One thing that played a vital role in conquering different territories was diseases. The Spanish brought many diseases with them to the New World and immense amounts of people died from these diseases. One disease that found its way into the New World and the Incan Empire was smallpox. Smallpox would play a key role in the conquering of the Incan Empire. Smallpox was first seen in Mexico, where it spread from there down to Central America and finally to the Incan Empire.
    Although the Incan Empire had a strong Army, they would not be able to fight off smallpox. Over 200,000 Incas died of smallpox, cutting the empire in half. The Incan Empire was regarded as “virgin soil”, because none of the {http://faculty.umf.maine.edu/%7Ewalters/web%20230/smallpox.jpg} diseases brought over by the Spanish, including smallpox, had ever been seen by these people. The Incas were not immune to smallpox, so when everyone was hit at once, it caused a high death rate. The Spanish were immune to many diseases and their genes had become resistant, making it easier for them to survive.
    ...
    to the IncasIncas, which was their emperor, Huayna Capac.Capac, who had died of smallpox. Huayna was
    War and Conquest
    ...
    Huayna Capac, which was due to smallpox, there was
    Francisco Pizarro arrived in 1532 with 67 horsemen and over 100 foot soldiers and invaded the Incan Empire. The Spanish had the advantage of guns, artillery, and horses, while the {http://www.pbp.sevier.org/Pizarro/Pizarro/images/img-francisco-pizarro.gif} Incas did not have much. Pizarro soon captured the empire’s recently appointed autocrat, Atahuualpa. The Incas paid a huge ransom in gold and silver to the Spaniards for the release of Atahualpa, but they killed him anyways. Pizarro and all the Spanish conquistadors then took control of the Incan Empire. Pizarro's capture of Atahualpa showed how much the loss of an emperor can affect and cause damage to society.
    The Incas were not able to put up a fight with the Spanish conquistadors because of what the smallpox epidemic had done. Smallpox caused the emperor Huayna Capac and his chosen heir to die, therefore resulting in a civil war between his two sons, Atahualpa and Huascar. This war caused the empire to divide, which made it much easier for Francisco Pizarro and the Spaniards to invade and conquer the area. The Spaniards would not have been able to “enter or win the lands” (Crosby 56) if the land had not been divided in the first place. They may have been able to drive out the Spanish invaders if they had not been hit by smallpox.
    (view changes)
    9:59 am

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